Certified by the International Association of Certified Home Inspectors


1. Definitions and Scope

1.1.  A general home inspection is a non-invasive,  visual examination of the accessible areas of a residential property (as  delineated below), performed for a fee, which is designed to identify defects  within specific systems and components defined by these Standards that are both  observed and deemed material by the inspector.  The scope of work may be  modified by the Client and Inspector prior to the inspection process.

  1. The general home inspection is based on the observations made on the date of  the inspection, and not a prediction of future conditions.
  2. The general home inspection will not reveal every issue that exists or ever  could exist, but only those material defects observed on the date of the  inspection.

1.2.  A material defect is a specific issue with a  system or component of a residential property that may have a significant,  adverse impact on the value of the property, or that poses an unreasonable risk  to people.  The fact that a system or component is near, at or beyond the  end of its normal useful life is not, in itself, a material defect.

1.3.  A general home inspection report shall  identify, in written format, defects within specific systems and components  defined by these Standards that are both observed and deemed material by the  inspector.  Inspection reports may include additional comments and  recommendations.

2. Limitations, Exceptions & Exclusions

2.1. Limitations:

  1. An inspection is not technically exhaustive.
  2. An inspection will not identify concealed or latent defects.
  3. An inspection will not deal with aesthetic concerns or what could be  deemed matters of taste, cosmetic defects, etc.
  4. An inspection will not determine the suitability of the property for any  use.
  5. An inspection does not determine the market value of the property or its  marketability.
  6. An inspection does not determine the insurability of the  property.
  7. An inspection does not determine the advisability or inadvisability of the  purchase of the inspected property.
  8. An inspection does not determine the life expectancy of the property or any  components or systems therein.
  9. An inspection does not include items not permanently installed.
  10. These Standards of Practice apply only to properties with four or fewer  residential units.

2.2. Exclusions:

I. The inspector is not required to determine:

  1. property boundary lines or encroachments.
  2. the condition of any component or system that is not readily  accessible.
  3. the service life expectancy of any component or system.
  4. the size, capacity, BTU, performance or efficiency of any component or  system.
  5. the cause or reason of any condition.
  6. the cause for the need of repair or replacement of any system or  component.
  7. future conditions.
  8. compliance with codes or regulations.
  9. the presence of evidence of rodents, birds, animals, insects, or other  pests.
  10. the presence of mold, mildew or fungus.
  11. the presence of airborne hazards, including radon.
  12. the air quality.
  13. the existence of environmental hazards, including lead paint, asbestos or  toxic drywall.
  14. the existence of electromagnetic fields.
  15. any hazardous waste conditions.
  16. any manufacturers' recalls or conformance with manufacturer installation, or  any information included for consumer protection purposes.
  17. acoustical properties.
  18. replacement or repair cost estimates.
  19. estimates of the cost to operate any given  system.

II. The inspector is not required to operate:

  1. any system that is shut down.
  2. any system that does not function properly.
  3. or evaluate low-voltage electrical systems such as, but not limited to:

          1. phone lines;
          2. cable lines;
          3. satellite dishes;
          4. antennae; 
          5. lights; or
          6. remote controls.
  4. any system that does not turn on with the use of normal operating  controls.
  5. any shut-off valves or manual stop valves.
  6. any electrical disconnect or over-current protection devices.
  7. any alarm systems.
  8. moisture meters, gas detectors or similar equipment.

III. The inspector is not required to:

  1. move any personal items or other obstructions, such as, but not limited to,  throw rugs, carpeting, wall coverings, furniture, ceiling tiles, window  coverings, equipment, plants, ice, debris, snow, water, dirt, pets, or anything  else that might restrict the visual inspection.
  2. dismantle, open or uncover any system or component.
  3. enter or access any area that may, in the opinion of the inspector, be  unsafe.
  4. enter crawlspaces or other areas that may be unsafe or not readily  accessible.
  5. inspect underground items, such as, but not limited to, lawn-irrigation  systems, underground storage tanks or other indications of their presence,  whether abandoned or actively used.
  6. do anything which may, in the inspector's opinion, be unsafe or dangerous to  the inspector or others, or damage property, such as, but not limited to:  walking on roof surfaces, climbing ladders, entering attic spaces, or  negotiating with pets.
  7. inspect decorative items.
  8. inspect common elements or areas in multi-unit housing.
  9. inspect intercoms, speaker systems or security systems.
  10. offer guarantees or warranties.
  11. offer or perform any engineering services.
  12. offer or perform any trade or professional service other than general home  inspection.
  13. research the history of the property, report on its potential for  alteration, modification, extendibility or suitability for a specific or  proposed use for occupancy.
  14. determine the age of construction or installation of any system structure or  component of a building, or differentiate between original construction and  subsequent additions, improvements, renovations or replacements.
  15. determine the insurability of a property.
  16. perform or offer Phase 1 or environmental audits.
  17. inspect any system or component that is not included in these  Standards.

3. Standards of Practice

3.1. Roof

I. The inspector shall inspect from ground level or the eaves:

  1. the roof-covering materials;
  2. the gutters;
  3. the downspouts;
  4. the vents, flashing, skylights, chimney and other roof penetrations;  and
  5. the general structure of the roof from the readily accessible panels, doors  or stairs.

II. The inspector is not required to:

  1. walk on any roof surface.
  2. predict the service life expectancy.
  3. inspect underground downspout diverter drainage pipes.
  4. remove snow, ice, debris or other conditions that prohibit the observation  of the roof surfaces.
  5. move insulation.
  6. inspect antennae, satellite dishes, lightning arresters, de-icing  equipment, or similar attachments.
  7. walk on any roof areas that appear, in the opinion of the inspector, to  be unsafe.
  8. walk on any roof areas if it might, in the opinion of the inspector, cause  damage.
  9. perform a water test.
  10. warrant or certify the roof.
  11. confirm proper fastening or installation of any roof-covering material.
3.2. Exterior

I. The inspector shall inspect:

  1. the exterior wall-covering material, flashing and trim;
  2. all exterior doors, decks, stoops, steps, stairs, ramps, porches, railings,  eaves, soffits and fascias;
  3. and report as in need of repair any improper spacing between intermediate  balusters, spindles and rails for steps, stairways, ramps, balconies and  railings;
  4. a representative number of windows;
  5. the vegetation, surface drainage, retaining walls and grading of the  property when they may adversely affect the structure, especially due to  moisture intrusion;
  6. and describe the exterior wall covering.

II. The inspector is not required to:

  1. inspect or operate screens, storm windows, shutters, awnings, fences,  outbuildings, or exterior accent lighting.
  2. inspect items that are not visible or readily accessible from the ground,  including window and door flashing.
  3. inspect or identify geological, geotechnical, hydrological or soil  conditions.
  4. inspect recreational facilities or playground equipment.
  5. inspect seawalls, breakwalls or docks.
  6. inspect erosion-control or earth-stabilization measures.
  7. inspect for safety-type glass.
  8. inspect underground utilities.
  9. inspect underground items.
  10. inspect wells or springs.
  11. inspect solar, wind or geothermal systems.
  12. inspect swimming pools or spas.
  13. inspect wastewater treatment systems, septic systems or  cesspools.
  14. inspect irrigation or sprinkler systems.
  15. inspect drainfields or dry wells.
  16. determine the integrity of multiple-pane window glazing or thermal window  seals.

3.3. Basement, Foundation, Crawlspace & Structure

I. The inspector shall inspect:

  1. the foundation;
  2. the basement;
  3. the crawlspace;
  4. and report observed indications of active water penetration;
  5. for wood in contact with or near soil;
  6. and report observed indications of possible foundation movement, such as  sheetrock cracks, brick cracks, out-of-square door frames, and unlevel  floors;
  7. and report on any observed cutting, notching and boring of framing  members that may, in the inspector's opinion, present a structural or  safety concern.

II. The inspector is not required to:

  1. enter any crawlspaces that are not readily accessible or where entry could  cause damage or pose a hazard to the inspector.
  2. move stored items or debris.
  3. operate sump pumps with inaccessible floats.
  4. identify size, spacing, span or location or determine the adequacy of  foundation bolting, bracing, joists, joist spans or support  systems.
  5. provide any engineering or architectural service.
  6. report on the adequacy of any structural system or  component.
3.4. Heating

I. The inspector shall inspect:

  1. the heating systems, using normal operating controls, and  describe the energy source and heating method;
  2. and report as in need of repair heating systems that do not  operate;
  3. and report if the heating systems are deemed  inaccessible.

II. The inspector is not required to:

  1. inspect or evaluate the interior of flues or chimneys, fire  chambers, heat exchangers, combustion air systems, fresh-air intakes,  humidifiers, dehumidifiers, electronic air filters, geothermal systems, or  solar heating systems.
  2. inspect fuel tanks or underground or concealed fuel supply  systems.
  3. determine the uniformity, temperature, flow, balance, distribution, size,  capacity, BTU, or supply adequacy of the heating system.
  4. light or ignite pilot flames.
  5. activate heating, heat pump systems or other heating systems when ambient  temperatures or other circumstances are not conducive to safe operation or may  damage the equipment.
  6. override electronic thermostats.
  7. evaluate fuel quality.
  8. verify thermostat calibration, heat anticipation, or automatic setbacks,  timers, programs or clocks.

3.5. Cooling

I. The inspector shall inspect:

  1. the central cooling equipment using normal operating  controls.

II. The inspector is not required to:

  1. determine the uniformity, temperature, flow, balance, distribution, size,  capacity, BTU, or supply adequacy of the cooling system.
  2. inspect window units, through-wall units, or electronic air  filters.
  3. operate equipment or systems if the exterior temperature is below 65°  Fahrenheit, or when other circumstances are not conducive to safe operation or  may damage the equipment.
  4. inspect or determine thermostat calibration, cooling anticipation, or  automatic setbacks or clocks.
  5. examine electrical current, coolant fluids or gases, or coolant  leakage.

3.6. Plumbing

I. The inspector shall:

  1. determine and report whether the water supply is public or private;
  2. verify the presence and identify the location of the main water shut-off  valve;
  3. inspect the water heating equipment, including venting  connections, energy-source supply system, and seismic bracing, and verify the  presence or absence of temperature-/pressure- relief valves and/or Watts 210  valves;
  4. inspect all toilets for proper operation by flushing;
  5. inspect all sinks, tubs and showers for functional drainage;
  6. inspect the interior water supply, including all fixtures and faucets, by  running the water;
  7. inspect the drain, waste and vent systems;
  8. describe any observed fuel-storage systems;
  9. inspect the drainage sump pumps, and operate pumps with accessible  floats;
  10. inspect and describe the location of the main water supply and main fuel  shut-off valves;
  11. inspect and report as in need of repair deficiencies in the water supply by  viewing the functional flow in two fixtures operated simultaneously;
  12. inspect and report as in need of repair deficiencies in installation of hot  and cold water faucets;
  13. inspect and report as in need of repair any mechanical drain stops  that are missing or do not operate if installed in sinks, lavatories and  tubs; and
  14. inspect and report any evidence that toilets are damaged, have loose  connections to the floor, leak, or have tank components that do not  operate.

II. The inspector is not required to:

  1. light or ignite pilot flames.
  2. determine the size, temperature, age, life expectancy or adequacy of the  water heater.
  3. inspect the interior of flues or chimneys, combustion air systems,  water softener or filtering systems, well pumps or tanks, safety  or shut-off valves, floor drains, lawn sprinkler systems, or fire  sprinkler systems.
  4. determine the exact flow rate, volume, pressure, temperature or adequacy of  the water supply.
  5. determine the water quality, potability or reliability of the water supply  or source.
  6. open sealed plumbing access panels.
  7. inspect clothes washing machines or their connections.
  8. operate any valve.
  9. test shower pans, tub and shower surrounds or enclosures for leakage or  functional overflow protection.
  10. evaluate the compliance with conservation, energy or building standards, or  the proper design or sizing of any water, waste or venting components, fixtures  or piping.
  11. determine the effectiveness of anti-siphon, back-flow prevention  or drain-stop devices.
  12. determine whether there are sufficient cleanouts for effective cleaning of  drains.
  13. evaluate fuel storage tanks or supply systems.
  14. inspect wastewater treatment systems.
  15. inspect water treatment systems or water filters.
  16. inspect water storage tanks, pressure pumps or bladder tanks.
  17. evaluate wait-time to obtain hot water at fixtures, or perform testing of  any kind to water heater elements.
  18. evaluate or determine the adequacy of combustion air.
  19. test, operate, open or close safety controls, manual stop valves and/or  temperature or pressure-relief valves.
  20. examine ancillary systems or components, such as, but not limited to, those  related to solar water heating and hot water circulation.
  21. determine the existence or condition of polybutylene  plumbing.

3.7. Electrical

I. The inspector shall inspect:

  1. the service drop/lateral;
  2. the meter socket enclosures;
  3. the means for disconnecting the service main;
  4. and describe the service disconnect amperage rating, if labeled;
  5. panelboards and over-current devices (breakers and fuses);
  6. and report on any unused circuit breaker panel openings that are not  filled;
  7. the service grounding and bonding;
  8. a representative number of switches, lighting fixtures and receptacles,  including receptacles observed and deemed to be arc-fault circuit interrupter or  AFCI-protected using the AFCI test button, where possible;
  9. and test all ground-fault circuit interrupter receptacles and circuit  breakers observed and deemed to be GFCIs using a GFCI tester, where  possible;
  10. and report the presence of solid conductor aluminum branch  circuit wiring, if readily visible;
  11. and report on any tested receptacles in which  power was not present, polarity was incorrect, the cover was not  in place, the GFCI devices were not properly installed or did not operate  properly, evidence of arcing or excessive heat, and where the  receptacle was not grounded or was not secured to the  wall; 
  12. the service entrance conductors and the condition of the conductor  insulation;
  13. for the general absence of smoke or carbon monoxide  detectors; and
  14. service entrance cables, and report as in need of repair deficiencies in the  integrity of the insulation, drip loop, or separation of conductors at  weatherheads and clearances from grade and  rooftops.

II. The inspector is not required to:

  1. insert any tool, probe or device into the main panelboard,  sub-panels, distribution panelboards, or electrical fixtures.
  2. operate electrical systems that are shut down.
  3. remove panelboard cabinet covers or dead fronts.
  4. operate or re-set over-current protection devices or overload  devices.
  5. operate smoke or carbon monoxide detectors.
  6. measure or determine the amperage or voltage of the main service  equipment, if not visibly labeled.
  7. inspect the fire and alarm system or components.
  8. inspect the ancillary wiring or remote control devices.
  9. activate any electrical systems or branch circuits that are not  energized.
  10. inspect low-voltage systems, electrical de-icing tapes, swimming pool  wiring, or any time-controlled devices.
  11. verify the service ground.
  12. inspect private or emergency electrical supply sources, including, but not  limited to: generators, windmills, photovoltaic solar collectors, or  battery or electrical storage facility.
  13. inspect spark or lightning arrestors.
  14. inspect or test de-icing equipment.
  15. conduct voltage-drop calculations.
  16. determine the accuracy of labeling.
  17. inspect exterior lighting.

3.8. Fireplace

I. The inspector shall inspect:

  1. and describe the fireplace;
  2. and open and close the damper door, if readily accessible and operable;
  3. hearth extensions and other permanently installed components;
  4. and report as in need of repair deficiencies in the lintel, hearth and  material surrounding the fireplace, including the fireplace opening's clearance  from visible combustible materials.

II. The inspector is not required to:

  1. inspect the flue or vent system.
  2. inspect the interior of chimneys or flues, fire doors or screens, seals  or gaskets, or mantels.
  3. determine the need for a chimney sweep.
  4. operate gas fireplace inserts.
  5. light pilot flames.
  6. determine the appropriateness of any installation.
  7. inspect automatic fuel-feed devices.
  8. inspect combustion and/or make-up air devices.
  9. inspect heat-distribution assists, whether gravity-controlled or  fan-assisted.
  10. ignite or extinguish fires.
  11. determine the adequacy of drafts or draft characteristics.
  12. move fireplace inserts, stoves or firebox contents.
  13. perform a smoke test.
  14. dismantle or remove any component.
  15. perform a National Fire Protection Association  (NFPA)-style inspection.
  16. perform a Phase I fireplace and chimney inspection.

3.9. Attic, Insulation & Ventilation

I. The inspector shall inspect:

  1. the insulation in unfinished spaces;
  2. for the presence of attic ventilation;
  3. mechanical ventilation systems;
  4. and report on the general absence or lack of insulation or ventilation in  unfinished spaces.

II. The inspector is not required to:

  1. enter the attic or any unfinished spaces that are not readily accessible, or  where entry could cause damage or, in the inspector's opinion, pose a safety  hazard.
  2. move, touch or disturb insulation.
  3. move, touch or disturb vapor retarders.
  4. break or otherwise damage the surface finish or weather seal on or  around access panels or covers.
  5. identify the composition or R-value of insulation material.
  6. activate thermostatically operated fans.
  7. determine the types of materials used in insulation or wrapping of pipes,  ducts, jackets, boilers or wiring.
  8. determine the adequacy of  ventilation.

3.10. Doors, Windows & Interior

I. The inspector shall inspect:

  1. a representative number of doors and windows by opening and closing  them;
  2. the walls, ceilings, steps, stairways and railings;
  3. and report as in need of repair any improper spacing between intermediate  balusters, spindles and rails for steps, stairways and railings;
  4. the garage doors and garage door openers' operation using the installed  automatic door control;
  5. and report as improper any photo-electric safety sensor that fails to  respond adequately to testing;
  6. and report as in need of repair any door locks or side ropes that have not  been removed or disabled when the garage door opener is in use;
  7. and report as in need of repair any windows that are obviously fogged or  display other evidence of broken seals.

II. The inspector is not required to:

  1. inspect paint, wallpaper, window treatments or finish treatments.
  2. inspect central vacuum systems.
  3. inspect for safety glazing.
  4. inspect security systems or components.
  5. evaluate the fastening of islands, countertops, cabinets, sink tops or  fixtures.
  6. move furniture, stored items, or any coverings, such as carpets  or rugs, in order to inspect the concealed floor structure.
  7. move suspended-ceiling tiles.
  8. inspect or move any household appliances.
  9. inspect or operate equipment housed in the garage, except as otherwise  noted.
  10. verify or certify proper operation of any pressure-activated auto-reverse or  related safety feature of a garage door.
  11. operate or evaluate any security bar release and opening mechanisms, whether  interior or exterior, including their compliance with local, state or federal  standards.
  12. operate any system, appliance or component that requires the use of special  keys, codes, combinations or devices.
  13. operate or evaluate self-cleaning oven cycles, tilt  guards/latches, or signal lights.
  14. inspect microwave ovens or test leakage from microwave ovens.
  15. operate or examine any sauna, steam-generating equipment, kiln, toaster, ice  maker, coffee maker, can opener, bread warmer, blender, instant hot-water  dispenser, or other small, ancillary devices.
  16. inspect elevators.
  17. inspect remote controls.
  18. inspect appliances.
  19. inspect items not permanently installed.
  20. discover firewall compromises.
  21. pools, spas or fountains.
  22. determine the adequacy of whirlpool or spa jets, water force, or bubble  effect.
  23. determine the structural integrity or leakage of pools or  spas.

4. Glossary of Terms

  • accessible: in the opinion of the inspector, can be  approached or entered safely without difficulty, fear or danger.
  • activate:  to turn on, supply power, or enable  systems, equipment or devices to become active by normal operating controls.  Examples include turning on the gas or water supply valves to the fixtures and  appliances, and activating electrical breakers or fuses.
  • adversely affect: to constitute, or potentially constitute,  a negative or destructive impact.
  • alarm system:  warning devices, installed or  freestanding, including, but not limited to: carbon monoxide detectors, flue gas  and other spillage detectors, security equipment, ejector pumps, and smoke  alarms.
  • appliance:  a household device operated by the use of  electricity or gas. Not included in this definition are components covered under  central heating, central cooling or plumbing.
  • architectural service:  any practice involving the art  and science of building design for construction of any structure or grouping of  structures, and the use of space within and surrounding the structures or the  design, design development, preparation of construction contract documents, and  administration of the construction contract.
  • component:  a permanently installed or attached  fixture, element or part of a system.
  • condition:  the visible and conspicuous state of being  of an object.
  • crawlspace:  the area within the confines of the  foundation and between the ground and the underside of the lowest floor's  structural component.
  • decorative: ornamental; not required for the operation of  essential systems or components of a home.
  • describe:  to report in writing a system or component  by its type or other observed characteristics in order to distinguish it from  other components used for the same purpose.
  • determine:  to arrive at an opinion or conclusion  pursuant to examination.
  • dismantle:  to open, take apart or remove any  component, device or piece that would not typically be opened, taken apart or  removed by an ordinary occupant.
  • engineering service:  any professional service or  creative work requiring engineering education, training and experience, and the  application of special knowledge of the mathematical, physical and engineering  sciences to such professional service or creative work as consultation,  investigation, evaluation, planning, design and supervision of construction for  the purpose of assuring compliance with the specifications and design, in  conjunction with structures, buildings, machines, equipment, works or  processes.
  • enter:  to go into an area to observe visible  components.
  • evaluate:  to assess the systems, structures and/or  components of a property.
  • examine:  to visually look (see inspect).
  • foundation:  the base upon which the structure or wall  rests; usually masonry, concrete or stone, and generally partially  underground.
  • function:  the action for which an item, component or  system is specially fitted or used, or for which an item, component or system  exists; to be in action or perform a task.
  • functional:  performing, or able to perform, a  function.
  • general home inspection:  the process by which an  inspector visually examines the readily accessible systems and components of a  home and operates those systems and components utilizing these Standards of  Practice as a guideline.
  • home inspection:  see general home  inspection.
  • household appliances:  kitchen and laundry appliances,  room air conditioners, and similar appliances.
  • identify:  to notice and report.
  • inspect:  to examine readily accessible systems and  components safely, using normal operating controls, and accessing readily  accessible areas, in accordance with these Standards of Practice.
  • inspected property:  the readily accessible areas of  the buildings, site, items, components and systems included in the  inspection.
  • inspector:  one who performs a real estate  inspection.
  • installed:  attached or connected such that the  installed item requires a tool for removal.
  • material defect:  a specific issue with a system or  component of a residential property that may have a significant, adverse impact  on the value of the property, or that poses an unreasonable risk to  people.  The fact that a system or component is near, at or beyond the end  of its normal useful life is not, in itself, a material defect.
  • normal operating controls:  devices, such as  thermostats, that would be operated by ordinary occupants which require no  specialized skill or knowledge.
  • observe:  to visually notice.
  • operate:  to cause systems to function or turn  on with normal operating controls.
  • readily accessible:  an item or component that is, in  the judgment of the inspector, capable of being safely observed without the  removal of obstacles, detachment or disengagement of connecting or securing  devices, or other unsafe or difficult procedures to gain access.
  • recreational facilities:  spas, saunas,  steam baths, swimming pools, tennis courts, playground equipment, and other  exercise, entertainment and athletic facilities.
  • report:  a written communication (possibly  including images) of any material defects observed during the  inspection.
  • representative number:  a sufficient number to serve  as a typical or characteristic example of the item(s) inspected.
  • residential property:  four or fewer residential  units.
  • residential unit:  a home; a single unit providing  complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons, including  permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.
  • safety glazing:  tempered glass, laminated glass, or  rigid plastic.
  • shut down:  turned off, unplugged, inactive, not in  service, not operational, etc.
  • structural component: a component that supports  non-variable forces or weights (dead loads) and variable forces or weights (live  loads).
  • system:  an assembly of various components which  function as a whole.
  • technically exhaustive:  a comprehensive and detailed  examination beyond the scope of a real estate home inspection that would  involve or include, but would not be limited to: dismantling, specialized  knowledge or training, special equipment, measurements, calculations, testing,  research, analysis, or other means.
  • unsafe:  in the inspector's opinion, a condition  of an area, system, component or procedure that is judged to be a  significant risk of injury during normal, day-to-day use. The risk may be due to  damage, deterioration, improper installation, or a change in accepted  residential construction standards.
  • verify:  to confirm or substantiate.


These terms are found within the Standards of Practice.  Visit  InterNACHI's full Glossary.





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